Fish farming also known as aquaculture is the act of rearing selected species of fish,crabs,shrimps etc under scientifically controlled conditions in enclosed bodies of water such as ponds,streams and rivers where they feed,grow,breed and are harvested for sale or consumption.
There are some basic keywords a person must know such as, newly hatched fishes are known as fingerlings and there must be a pond or aquarium available to house the fish.
Fish farming is a very lucrative business in Nigeria that fetches those who practice it bountiful income since fishes lay may eggs and multiply.
The demand for fish in the market is also very high as families need it to perfect their daily meal if meat is absent
Fish farming also provides a means of increasing availability of protein to people at reduced cost.
Fish farming does not only deal with selling of fishes alone it also covers other aspects on how to make profits since the farmers can also get fish meals,fish oil, manure and skin as by products from the fish.
There are many conditions necessary for siting a fish pond which include the provision of adequate water supply, soil in the area, vegetation, topography of the area, availability of fast growing fishes and availability of supplementary foodstuffs.
An example of commonly reared fish is catfish which fetch a lot of income to farmers since there is a high demand for it in the market to cook and also make pepper soup.
However there are some features that a standard fish pond must have before fish farming can be carried out which includes a water inlet,water,dyke,a spillway,screen etc.
Some steps are carried out before fish farming – which includes
- the selection of site
- general and detailed survey
- clearing of site
- construction of dam
- core trench and spillway
- im-pondment of pond
- pond inoculation and stocking of pond.
Once all this is done the farmer must know how to maintain the fish pond through regular feeding of fishes, de weeding ,resulting,aeration,constant supply of water and protection against predators.
When the fishes are grown and ready for harvest ,the farmer can decide to preserve it by salting,smoking , sun-drying,freezing,canning etc.
Fish can be harvested using cast net,scoop net,clap net etc.
Once a farmer knows all these he is on his way to becoming a successful businessman in aquaculture.