Poultry Farming Business in Nigeria: How to Start (Beginner’s Guide)

Are you a seasoned or beginner farmer who want to venture into Poultry farming in Nigeria? If yes. You’ve arrived on the right page! Read on….

This post contains an in-dept guide to start a poultry farming business in Nigeria. If you’re outside Nigeria, we’ve got your cover. Follow this guide to set-up profitable a poultry farm in your country. You can use this guide in different parts of other Africa countries like Kenya, Ghana, etc.

Poultry farming involves raising domesticated birds such chickens, turkeys, etc. for food’s purposes.

Chickens are most farmed in great number in Nigeria. A case study by essaysauce shows that Poultry sector contribute about 25% of agricultural domestic products of  Nigerian economy

Starting up poultry farming does not need a degree in Agricultural science. But you may need the help of a Veterinary doctor at one point or the other.

 Poultry farming business in Nigeria

Picture of Poultry Farming

Poultry farming business is lucrative business when there are a good management. Chances are that the business would grow fast.

But it is usually capital intensive if you venture into commercial poultry farming. The best way to succeed in poultry farming business is to start in low scale and then grow from there.

Factors to consider when Starting Poultry Farming

Some factors to consider when starting poultry farming business include;

  • Enough Space/land
  • good water supply
  • type of bird to rear and its market demand
  • how far you are willing to go – long term or short-term cost
  • location
  • nearness to market
  • availability of drugs or vaccines
  • disposal of excretes

These factors poses serious challenges to poultry farming business. And so, need to be address before kicking-off the business.

How to start Poultry Farming business in Nigeria

If you’re thinking of starting poultry farming in Nigeria, follow these steps;

  1. Draft a Poultry Farm Business Plan
  2. Choose a Poultry farming niche
  3. Choose Poultry Bird Type
  4. Get a location
  5. Source for fund
  6. Buy poultry farming equipment
  7. Construct your Poultry Farm Structure
  8. Hire Experienced Poultry farmer
  9. Create poultry farm logo
  10. Advertise/promote your poultry products
  11. Put your business on the web

Draft a Poultry Farm Business Plan

The first step to start a poultry farming business is to draft a poultry farming business plan.

A Poultry farming business plan will serve as blueprint for your business. A Business road map that will help you secure loan from banks and investors.

Choose a Poultry farming niche

The broilers and layers rearing are two good poultry farm niche you can venture into in Nigeria.

Broilers are chickens raised for meat. Layers are chickens raised for egg production but can serve as meat at old age.

Other poultry farm niche to go into include;

  • Egg Hatchery and raising day-old chicks for two weeks.
  • Poultry feed production
  • Egg and meat processing (layer, broiler, turkey, duck, quail, etc.)

You can decide to operate all poultry niche or restrict the business to one or two niches of your choice.

Choose Poultry Bird Type

Poultry farm owners rear many types of birds. But you can start a small poultry farm. Focus on one or two types of poultry birds and then include more birds later as the business grows.

There are many different types of poultry birds you can choose to rear. But, the most reared birds in Nigeria are the Boilers, Layers and domestic turkey.

Types of poultry Birds to Rear

You can rear the following types of poultry birds;

  • Broilers

  • Layers

  • Cockrails

  • Domestic turkey

  • Ducks

  • Common quail

  • guineafowl

  • Junglefowl

  • Peafowl

  • Leghorn chicken

  • Silkie

  • Brahma chicken

  • Rhode Island Red

  • Plymouth Rock chicken

  • Orpington chicken

  • Ameraucana

  • Goose

You should be determine on type of poultry bird(s) to rear.

Get a Location

Get a good location when starting a poultry farming business. A location that has all the necessary facilities.

The location should be a little away from the town. So that you can get enough land or space and labour at a reduced cost.

Setting up the farm too far away from the nearest town is bad. Because, you need to approach the town more often to get your target customers.

A location too away from city may cost you a lot more on transportation and that’s not good for the business.

Source for fund

Get financial help preferable one you can rely on if you don’t have enough capital to start the business.

You need fund to buy a land(s) and facilities to enhance your productivity.

Also, you need funds to pay salaries to your staffs/labourers. Although since you are starting up, you may not need much staffs. You can do a few things yourself to save cost except if you can afford it.

Venturing into commercial poultry farming in Nigeria requires enough funding. So, you may need to outsources for fund.

Put down in black and white a good business plan on poultry farming to help you outsource for funds.

Analyze your financial requirements. Don’t apply for a bank loan, look for other means to finance your poultry business. But, if you have a good backing then, apply for a bank loan.

Buy poultry farming equipment

What equipment are necessary for a poultry farm? The following equipment are necessary in a poultry farm;

feeders, drinkers, perches, lighting system, incubators, heaters or brooders, and many more.

To buy poultry farming equipment, Jiji Nigeria has some display for sale on their website.

Construct your Poultry Farm Structure

There are three types of structures for poultry farming;

  1. Free roaming system

Here, the poultry farm is construct to allow the chicks freedom to roam about and fend for themselves.

It is not recommended since you do not have control of the birds.

  1. The sawdust system

Here, the house contains sawdust and the chicks move about within the enclosure. The sawdust is change often to keep the chicks safe from disease.

  1. The battery caging system

Here, the birds are house in different sizes of cages according to their different sizes. In the caging system, there is always provisions for the feeding, laying of eggs and dropping by the birds. I recommend Battery caging system. Each group of bird’s houses in a separate cage have freedom of association. But it could be more expensive.

Battery caging system and the sawdust system are used for commercial poultry farming. Because, they are large enough to give the birds freedom and good ventilation.

You can design the following poultry house;

Brooder house – use to brood and rear egg-type chicks from 0 to 8 weeks of age.

Layer house – In which birds over 18 weeks of age are rear, usually up to 72 weeks of age.

Broiler house – In which broilers are rear up to 6 weeks of age.

Incubator house – For hatching Eggs. Fertilize poultry Egg hatches in 21 days.

Hire Experienced Poultry farmer

Hire the services of experienced poultry farmers if you can afford it.

Many aspects of poultry farming require the services of experienced poultry farmer. So, hire one if you can.

But if you can’t afford to hire professionals with years of experience. Hire people who are willing to learn on the job and teach them. That’s if you have good knowledge of poultry farming business.

For example, day old chicks are more prone to death and so, should be handle with care. You need to have a good knowledge of how to care for day old chicks if you’re going to brood day old chicks. Self sufficientHomeacre has a lot of information how to care for day old chicks.

If you must succeed in poultry farming, you need the service of an experienced poultry farmer. But poultry farming is not labour intensive if you can involve technology.

Create poultry farm logo

The competition is high out there. So, while starting a chicken farm, give your poultry farm business a name to stand out among the crowd.

You can register the name on Corporate Affairs Commission (CAC) Nigeria.  Search for availability of the name on CAC and register. You may find lots of farm name ideas. But, pick the one that suits your farm type.

After giving your poultry farm a good name, create a unique poultry farm logo for your business. This logo showers light on your uniqueness. Inscribe the logo on your farm products when you market them. The logo will also be on your marketing material such as your business cards and websites.

Advertise/promote your poultry products

Advertise/promote your poultry business as it pays. Having a good marketing and promotional strategy will  help you achieve your business goals.

To advertise your products, analyze the demand and supply of the products in market. Know your target consumer.

You meet many people on daily basis. Tell them about your poultry business. Start from talking to your friends and neighbours.

Visit events related to poultry farming and make friends with as many people as you can. You can never know where you’ll meet some of your potential customers. Make all them aware of your sales days.

Consider going digital to enable people reach you as well as have your business card.

Put your business on the web

This is also a type of marketing. But it mustn’t kick-start this right away.

Setting up an online business may takes little time. So, first things first! But, in the long-run, you can put the business on the web.

When most of your potential customers look for your poultry products. The first place they will search for the products is online.

If your poultry business is not on the web, you are missing on a plethora of business opportunities.

So, make it a point to have a dedicated website for your poultry business. When users visit your poultry farming website, it should reflect on you.

Finally, find out what successful Poultry farmers in your locality are doing. Think of if it is something you can do or improve upon it if need be.

Look for ways to cut the air pollution and think of better ways to dispose excretes – it makes you look civilized.

Be keen to learning and focus on your business

Cost of Starting Poultry Farming Business in Nigeria

A Detailed Cost Analysis for Starting Poultry Farming Business in Nigeria;

Cost of purchasing Land/Space

In Nigeria, you can get a very good plot of farmland for about N600,000 in rural area, that’s about $3,500. Then, N1,000,000 – N1,500,000 in suburban area.

But regardless of the country you are, you can get a good farmland within the price range of $4,00 and $6,000 or even less.

Whereby, you can’t get land, you rent a space and put up battery cages. This will be cheaper for the start.

Cost of Construction

After buying land, you start construction of the poultry farm. You would have to construct a cage system to keep the birds in.

There are different types of cages, you can see them displayed for sale on Alibaba.

Decided on the most suitable one and then, can call experts to give you a quote or you buy from Alibaba.

In Nigeria, a good poultry housing would cost you nothing less than N250,000 – N700,000. But it depends on your poultry’s farm size.

You may also need to build stores house for keeping equipment and supplies.

Cost of Poultry Equipment

The equipment you’ll buy is dependent on your poultry farm’s size and the nature of your business.

If you want to hatch and sell chicks for instance, you would have to buy hatchery machine. If you want to process meat for sale, you would also need fridge and freezer. The same thing applicable if you’re going to produce your own poultry feed.

It is important you sit down and decide on the nature of poultry farming you want to set up. Then, find out the type of equipment you would need.

Budget at least N500,000 for purchasing equipment for a commercial poultry farm.

Cost of Chicks

The number of chicks you would buy depends on your farm’s size and the capacity of the poultry house.

Day old chicks are usually very cheap and you could get a carton of about 24 chicks for N6,000 – N12,000. This is at the rate of N250 – N500 per chick. You may even get it at cheaper rate.

At Afrimash.com, Agrited carton of Day-Old Chicks containing 50 chicks per carton is ₦18,000.00.

Cost of Vaccination

Poultry birds needs proper medical attention. So, you must give them all necessary medical attention to get good result.

Factor cost of vaccination and payment of veterinary doctor in your business plan. You need to budget at least N150,000 for 150-250 birds.

Cost of Feeding

The most important expense you would undertake in poultry farming business is feeding.

There are different types of poultry feeds for different growth stage of chicks;

  • The starter – for little chicks
  • The grower – for optimal growth and strength
  • The finisher when they are getting close to the selling/maturity stage.

Budget about N250,000 for 150 – 250 chicks but if you want to cut cost, you can consider producing your own poultry feed.

It is going be too expense at the start but it would save you a lot of money in the long-run.

Cost of Labour

When you start commercial poultry farming, hardly would you carry out all tasks yourself. You’ll need to get people to assist you and you pay them.

Make a budget of at least N300,000 for workers taking care of 150-250 boilers chicks to maturity. Note; this may vary from location to another.

Miscellaneous Expenses

Miscellaneous expenses include cost of things like;

  • power supply
  • water supply
  • transportation
  • advertising
  • security
  • insurance

In summary, the total cost of starting a poultry farming business in Nigeria will be roughly N2,000,000. But this depends on your entry level.

To get an accurate cost of setting up poultry farm, carry out your own feasibility study in your location.

Read also: Cost of starting fish farming in Nigeria

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