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Challenges facing Poultry farming Business in Nigeria, Kenya & other parts of Africa

Poultry farming business is one of the profitable agricultural livestock business one can start in Nigeria, Kenya, and many other parts of Africa. In Nigeria, there is likely no backyard you’ll not find a Poultry farm. Poultry farming business is a lucrative business but not without its challenges. These challenges can sometime be overwhelming such that if not properly control or carefully managed; can cause the collapse of the poultry farming business. There is no limit to poultry farm that can be affected by these challenges. I have seen Big poultry farm closed down because they were badly hit by these challenges.

Poultry farming challenges

So, if you’re thinking of starting a poultry farming business in Nigeria, Kenya, or any other parts of Africa; here are some of the Challenges facing Poultry farming Business you need to tackle;

  1. Viable Breeds of Poultry Birds
  2.  Space
  3. Lack of Clean water
  4. Disease Outbreak
  5. Epileptic Power supply
  6. Lack of appropriate Vaccines
  7. Climatic Condition
  8. Financial Constraint
  9. Lack of experience/appropriate information
  10. Target market

Read also: Challenges of Plantain Farming in Nigeria

Viable Breeds of Poultry Birds

Availability of viable breeds of poultry birds is one of top challenges facing Poultry farming business in Nigeria. Most species of poultry birds do carry disease/infection from hatchery and if not known or discovered earlier and treated, can cause disease outbreak in your poultry farm. The manifestation of these infections can come at any point in the growth stage of the birds. So, it is advisable to buy quality/viable species of poultry birds Most breeds of chicks from Ibadan, Oyo Nigeria are quality breeds. Jos, Plateau State also hatch quality breeds of birds.


Availability of Space is another mitigating factor or challenge affecting Poultry farming business in Nigeria. Poultry birds need spaces to thrive well. If the birds are packed in a little space, heat will start killing them. So, they should be enough space for free movement of the birds. Again, cross-use of a particular space can cause outbreak of disease in your poultry farm. Space for brooding chicks should be disinfected properly and allow to stay for sometime before use and this can only be possible if you have enough space.

Lack of Clean water

The birds drink water both at night and heavily during the day. The poultry birds need clean water. Well water is not good for poultry birds. The birds can contact water borne disease when they drink dirty water. When thinking of starting poultry farm, it’s important you factor in clean drinking water as one of your utmost requirements.  In the view of that, you’ll need to buy GP – tank for water storage and be ready to call for water supply in case of water shortage in your poultry farm.

Disease Outbreak

Disease Outbreak is of one top challenge facing Poultry farming business in Africa.  Most disease outbreak are sporadic and uncontrollable. Outbreak of disease in poultry farm can cause massive loss/death of poultry birds. So, outbreak of disease poses a serious challenge to poultry farming in Nigeria and other parts of Africa. Poultry Farmers has to been vigilant and need to monitor the droppings of poultry birds always. They need to note when there is change in colour of faeces of the birds and call the attention of an experienced Veterinary doctor.

 Power Supply

Power Shortage is one of serious challenge facing poultry farming business. In Nigeria, there is often epileptic power supply. The birds need light or heat during cold weather. They need power supply to feed at night. Again, during the brooding of day-old chicks, you’ll need constant power supply for keeping the chicks warm otherwise the birds may contact cold. So, the important of constant power supply in Poultry farm cannot be overemphasis.

Lack of appropriate vaccines

Poultry birds are Vaccinated at different stages of their growth live. When those vaccines are not available or the birds are not vaccinated at appropriate time, it can pose a great risk to the lives of the birds. The birds can become susceptible to diseases. In case of outbreak of disease, vaccines are needed for immediate arrest, control and management of the disease; when not available, they may be massive death of the birds.

Climatic Condition

Climatic condition is also a challenge facing poultry farming business in Nigeria. Poultry birds thrive well in cold and warm weather. So, when citing poultry farm in any geographical location; you should be conversant with climatic condition of the environment.  You have to be sure that it favours the rearing of poultry birds. Poultry birds thrive very well in places like Jos, plateau state; Ibadan, Oyo State; Enugu; Port Harcourt, River State etc.

Financial Constraint

Commercial Poultry farming business is capital intensive especially when there is crowding of poultry ideas. Financial constraints is a great challenge to poultry farming business. Funds are needed to financed things like;

  • Vaccines
  • Battery cages
  • Space
  • Food troughs
  • Drinking cans
  • Labour
  • Poultry feeds
  • Quality species of poultry birds (Chicks)
  • Alternative power supply
  • Water Supply etc.

One of the major reasons commercial Agricultural farmers avoid poultry farming is because of its funding. Funds to keep feeding the birds till maturity stage or laying of eggs and until disposal. Poultry farming requires financial backup in case of loss. Worst! Banks and investors are not willing to invest/fund Poultry farming business. So, Poultry farming business is left in hands of individuals who are willing to take the risk.

Lack of experience/appropriate information

Lack of experience/appropriate information is a serious challenge facing poultry farming business. Poultry farming requires experienced. There are a lot of things a poultry farmer should learn before jumping into poultry farming business. You need to learn, when and how to administer one particular drug or the other. You need to learn when to change feed type; from chicks feed – growers – finisher or layer. Acquiring practical training on poultry farming may help to curb this challenge.

Target market

Availability of target market may not necessarily pose a challenge to poultry farming business if proper arrangement is made for sales. However, when one market pricing of your poultry product is not equitable with the cost of production, you may be force to look for different market. This kind of challenge can be avoided by making necessary contacts earlier with buyers before the due date (month) of disposal of your poultry birds. Keeping the birds and feeding them after maturation, can lead to loss.

In summary, Poultry farming business is profitable business but not without challenges facing it. Some of these challenges are what I have enumerated above. These challenges can be overwhelming sometimes such that if appropriate measures are not taken to tackle them; they can cause the collapse of the poultry farm. Envisage some of these challenges when starting a poultry farm and fathom means to checkmate them.

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